I present and read several sections of my books on Einstein

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I present my two books and read several sections of my books out loud:

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Until February 29, 2016, you can all receive a generous discount when purchasing my book, General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries: Einstein’s Polemics with Physicists by Cambridge Scholars.

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Some of the topics discussed in my first book, Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

People ask questions about Einstein’s special theory of relativity: How did Einstein come up with the theory of special relativity? What did he invent? What is the theory of special relativity? How did Einstein discover special relativity? Was Einstein the first to arrive at special relativity? Was Einstein the first to invent E = mc2?

Did Poincaré publish special relativity before Einstein? Was Einstein’s special theory of relativity revolutionary for scientists of his day? How did the scientific community receive Einstein’s theory of special relativity when he published it? What were the initial reaction in the scientific community after Einstein had published his paper on special relativity?

In my book, Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity, I try to answer these and many other questions.The topics discussed in my book are the following:

I start with Einstein’s childhood and school days.

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I then discuss Einstein’s student days at the Zurich Polytechnic. Einstein the rebellious cannot take authority, the patent office, Annus Mirabilis, University of Bern and University of Zurich, Minkowski’s space-time formalism of special relativity.

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Young Einstein, Aarau Class 1896

Additional topics treeated in my book are the following: Fizeau’s water tube experiment, Fresnel’s formula (Fresnel’s dragging coefficient), stellar aberration, and the Michelson and Michelson-Morley Experiments.

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Albert Einstein at the Patent office

Mileva Marić and Einstein

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Eduard Tete, Mileva Marić and Hans Albert

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Einstein’s road to the special theory of relativity: Einstein first believes in the ether, he imagines the chasing a light beam thought experiment and the magnet and conductor thought experiment. Did Einstein respond to the Michelson and Morley experiment? Emission theory, Fizeau’s water tube experiment and ether drift experiments and Einstein’s path to special relativity; “The Step”.

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Henri Poincaré’s possible influence on Einstein’s road to the special theory of relativity.

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Einstein’s methodology and creativity, special principle of relativity and principle of constancy of the velocity of light, no signal moves beyond the speed of light, rigid body and special relativity, the meaning of distant simultaneity, clock synchronization, Lorentz contraction, challenges to Einstein’s connection of synchronisation and Lorentz contraction, Lorentz transformation with no light postulate, superluminal velocities, Laue’s derivation of Fresnel’s formula, the clock paradox and twin paradox, light quanta, mass-energy equivalence, variation of mass with velocity, Kaufmann’s experiments, the principles of relativity as heuristic principles, and Miller ether drift experiments.

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The book also briefly discusses general relativity: Einstein’s 1920 “Geometry and Experience” talk (Einstein’s notion of practical geometry), equivalence principle, equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, Galileo’s free fall, generalized principle of relativity, gravitational time dilation, the Zurich Notebook, theory of static gravitational fields, the metric tensor, the Einstein-Besso manuscript, Einstein-Grossmann Entwurf theory and Entwurf field equations, the hole argument, the inertio-gravitational field, Einstein’s general relativity: November 1915 field equations, general covariance and generally covariant field equations, the advance of Mercury’s perihelion, Schwarzschild’s solution and singularity, Mach’s principle, Einstein’s 1920 suggestion: Mach’s ether, Einstein’s static universe, the cosmological constant, de Sitter’s universe, and other topics in general relativity and cosmology which lead directly to my second book, General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries.

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My books

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My book: Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

2015 marks several Albert Einstein anniversaries: 100 years since the publication of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, 110 years since the publication of the Special Theory of Relativity and 60 years since his passing.

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What is so special about this year that deserves celebrations? My new book on Einstein: Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity has just been returned from the printers and I expect Amazon to have copies very shortly.

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The Publisher uploaded the contents and intro.

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I hope you like my drawing on the cover:

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Einstein, 1923: “Ohmmm, well… yes, I guess!”

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The book is dedicated to the late Prof. Mara Beller, my PhD supervisor from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem who passed away ten years ago and wrote the book: Quantum Dialogue (Chicago University Press, 1999):

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Have a very happy Einstein year!

June 30. Ether is superfluous: Faraday and Einstein

On this day in 1905 Albert Einstein’s paper, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” arrived at the editorial offices of the journal Annalen der Physik. The paper was published three months later, and the theory later became known as special relativity. Physics Today.

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On April 15, 1846 Faraday gave a lecture at the Royal Institution. The talk was delivered under the title “Thoughts of Ray Vibrations”.  

Faraday began saying: “I incline to believe that when there are intervening particles of matter (being themselves only centers of force), they take part in carrying on the force through the line, but when there are none, the line proceeds through space… we can at all events affect these lines of force in a manner which may be conceived as partaking of the nature of a shake or lateral vibration…
It may be asked, what lines of force are there in nature which are fitted to convey such an action and supply for the vibrating theory the place of the aether?” The lines of force could be electrical, magnetic or gravitational. “…all I can say is, that I do not perceive in any part of space, whether (to use the common phrase) vacant of filled with matter, anything but forces and the lines in which they are exerted…
The view which I am so bold to put forth considers, therefore, radiation as a high species of vibration in the lines of force which are known to connect particles and also masses of matter together. It endeavours to dismiss the aether, but not the vibrations”.
In addition, Faraday explains that the vibrations that occur on the surface of disturbed water, or the waves of sound in gases or liquids, are “direct or to and fro from the centre of action”, whereas the (radiant) vibrations are “lateral”.
Faraday then explains the problem that is inherent in an ether model. He writes that it seems to him, “that the resultant of two or more lines of force is an apt condition for that action which may be considered as equivalent to a lateral vibration; whereas a uniform medium, like the ether does not appear apt, or more apt than air or water”.

Faraday’s lines of force inspired Maxwell in developing electric and magnetic field theory, but Maxwell did not follow Faraday in rejecting the ether. Maxwell developed mechanical models for the ether.

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Michael Faraday

Einstein, apparently not knowing about Faraday’s 1846 rejection of the ether, started his 1905 relativity paper with the problematic asymmetries that were inherent in the electrodynamical explanation of the phenomenon of induction by Faraday. Hence, Einstein started with Faraday.

According to Faraday, when a magnet and a closed electric circuit are in relative motion, an electric current is induced in the electric circuit. This current is actually a result of the relative motion between the magnet and the conductor.
If the conductor is at rest in the ether and the magnet is moved with a given velocity, a certain electric current is induced in the conductor. If the magnet is at rest, and the conductor moves with the same relative velocity, a current of the same magnitude and direction is in the conductor. The ether theory gives a different explanation for the origin of this current in the two cases. In the first case an electric field is supposed to be created in the ether by the motion of the magnet relative to it (Faraday’s induction law). In the second case, no such electric field is supposed to be present since the magnet is at rest in the ether, but the current results from the motion of the conductor through the static magnetic field.

This asymmetry of the explanation is foreign to the phenomenon, because the observable phenomena (the current in the conductor) depend only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet.

Parts of Faraday’s talk are also quoted in “Fields of Force: The Development of a World View from Faraday to Einstein”,  By William Berkson, pp. 97-99.

איינשטיין ותורת הקוונטים Einstein and the Light Quantum

In 1905 Planck, a coeditor of the Annalen der Physik, accepted Einstein’s paper on light quanta for publication, even though he disliked the idea of “light quanta”. Einstein’s relativity paper was received by the Annalen der Physik at the end of June 1905 and Planck was the first scientist to notice Einstein’s relativity theory and to report favorably on it. In the 1905 relativity paper Einstein used the notion, “light complex”, and he did not invoke his novel quanta of light heuristic with respect to the principle of relativity. He chose the language “light complex” for which no clear definition could be given. But with hindsight, in 1905 Einstein made exactly the right choice not to mix concepts from his quantum paper with those from his relativity paper. He focused on the solution of his relativity problem, whose far-reaching perspectives Planck already sensed. x

In the Electrodynamical part of the Relativity paper Einstein considers the system K. Very far from the origin of K, there is a source of electromagnetic waves. Let part of space containing the origin of coordinates 0 be represented to a sufficient degree of approximation by plane waves. Einstein asks: What characterizes the waves when they are examined by an observer at the same point 0, but at rest in the system k, moving relatively to K with constant speed v? x

Einstein applies the Lorentz transformation and transformation equations for electric and magnetic fields to the equations of the plane electromagnetic wave with respect to K. He obtains the Doppler principle, i.e., the frequency of electromagnetic waves as it appears in the system k and K: f’/f.   x

Einstein then finds the amplitude of the waves as it appears in the system k; the amplitude of the electric or magnetic waves A or A’, respectively, as it is measured in the system K or in the system k. Einstein gives the equation for the square of amplitude, Pointing vector. x

We expect that the ratio of the square of the amplitude of a given light complex “measured in motion” and “measured at rest” would be the energy if the volume of a light complex were the same measured in K and k. However, says Einstein, this is not the case.  x

Einstein thus instead considers a spherical surface of radius R moving with the velocity of light. He is interested in the light energy enclosed by the light surface. No energy passes outside through the surface of the spherical light surface, because the surface and the light wave both travel with the velocity of light. He calculates the amount of energy enclosed by this surface as viewed from the system k, which will be the energy of the light complex relative to the system k. The spherical surface – viewed in the system k – is an ellipsoidal surface. If we call the energy of the light enclosed by this surface E when it is measured in system K, and E’ when measured in system k, we obtain the equation that relates between E and E’.  x

Einstein realizes that, “It is noteworthy that the energy and the frequency of a light complex vary with the observer’s state of motion according to the same law”. x

Namely, E’/E = f’/f.     x

John Stachel read my manuscript and said that this formula corresponds to that of the light quantum hypothesis, and in hindsight this supplies extra evidence for the later hypothesis. Einstein’s aim is to show that the equation E = hv that he uses in the quantum paper takes the same form in any inertial frame. That is, E = hv is transformed to E’ = hv’ and thus the relativity postulate is not violated.  x

I wrote in my manuscript that Rynasiewicz wrote in 2005 (and even before that) that, “Einstein wraps up his derivation with what is clearly an allusion to the light quantum hypothesis”. Rynasiewicz adds that “What he does not draw attention to there is the intimate relation of this result to the relative character of simultaneity”.  x

However, Stachel told me that he was the first to notice that in his relativity paper Einstein implicitly referred to the light quantum hypothesis and he told me to delete Rynasiewicz’s comment. x

Then in light of my manuscript Stachel wrote the following paragraph, which reflects my manuscript, and also the collected papers of Einstein, which he edited

Before submitting his 1905 special relativity paper, Einstein had submitted the light quantum paper – the only one of his 1905 papers he considered truly revolutionary. “On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Generation and Transformation of Light”, sent to the Annalen on March 17th, 1905, and received by the Annalen a day afterwards. Indeed Einstein wrote Habicht in May 1905 about this paper, “It deals with the radiation and energy characteristics of light and is very revolutionary”.  x

This paper extended the range of application of Planck’s 1900 quantum hypothesis. In order to explain his law of black body radiation, which had been well-verified empirically, Planck was forced to assume that oscillators interacting with the electromagnetic field could only emit and/or absorb energy in discrete units, which he called quanta of energy. The energy of these quanta was proportional to the frequency of the oscillator: E = hv. But Planck believed, in accord with Maxwell’s theory, that the energy of the electromagnetic field itself could change continuously. x

Einstein now showed that, if this formula were extended to the electromagnetic field energy itself, a number of phenomena involving interactions between matter and radiation, otherwise inexplicable classically, could now be simply explained with the help of these light quanta. x

But, he was at work on his relativity paper too; so the question naturally arose, if the equation E = hv holds in one inertial frame of reference, will it hold in all others. If not, then Einstein’s relativity principle would be violated. Since h, the so-called quantum of action, is a universal constant, the question reduces to: Do the energy and frequency of a light quantum transform in the same way in passing from one inertial frame to another. And this is just what he demonstrates in his paper. x

Hence, not wanting to introduce a discussion of his still-quite-speculative light quantum hypothesis into a paper which he regarded as simply an extension of well accepted classical ideas from mechanics to electromagnetism and optics, he confined his proof to the classical level. x

Instead of “light quanta”, in his proof he introduced the rather awkward term “light complex”, a term that he soon dropped. x

In my paper discussing relativity and light quanta I bring both opinions and I also refer to Einstein’s Collected Papers. x

HUJI, Lucien Chavan

paper abstract

Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski’s Space-time Formalism

Vesselin Petkov writes: “Minkowski’s contributions to modern physics have not been fully and appropriately appreciated. […] Einstein called Minkowski’s approach ‘superfluous learnedness’. Also, Sommerfeld’s recollection of what Einstein said on one occasion can provide further indication of his initial attitude towards Minkowski’s development of the implications of the equivalence of the times of observers in relative motion: ‘Since the mathematicians have invaded the relativity theory, I do not understand it myself any more’. […] Despite his initial negative reaction towards Minkowski’s four-dimensional physics Einstein relatively quickly realized that his revolutionary theory of gravity would be impossible without the revolutionary contributions of Minkowski”. x

First let us correct a myth here: it is not quit true that Minkowski’s contributions have not been appreciated. Hermann Minkowski was Einstein’s former mathematics professor at the Zürich Polytechnic. During his studies at the Polytechnic Einstein skipped Minkowski’s classes; but Einstein also skipped Prof. Carl Friedrich Geiser’s lectures as much as he skipped Prof. Adolf Hurwitz’s classes… They were all mathematicians. Einstein never showed up the classes of mathematicians. At that time Einstein was less interested in mathematics than in the visible process of physics. He found it difficult to accept for a long time the importance of abstract mathematics, and found high mathematics necessary only when developing his gravitation theory – he discovered the qualities of high mathematics around 1912

Einstein and his wife around 1905

Second, On September 21, 1908, in the 80th annual general meeting of the German Society of Scientists and Physicians at Cologne, Minkowski presented his famous talk, “Space and Time”. x

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May years later his assistant, the physicist Max Born wrote: “I went to Cologne, met Minkowski and heard his celebrated lecture ‘Space and Time’, delivered on 21 September 1908. […] He told me later that it came to him as a great shock when Einstein published his paper in which the equivalence of the different local times of observers moving relative to each other was pronounced; for he had reached the same conclusions independently but did not publish them because he wished first to work out the mathematical structure in all its splendor. He never made a priority claim and always gave Einstein his full share in the great discovery”. x

Scott Walter writes, “This story of Minkowski’s recollection of his encounter with Einstein’s paper on relativity is curious, in that the idea of the observable equivalence of clocks in uniform motion had been broached by Poincaré in one of the papers studied during the first session of the electron-theory seminar. It is possible, of course, that Poincaré’s operational definition of local time escaped Minkowski’s attention, or that Minkowski was thinking of an exact equivalence of timekeepers”. [In the
summer of 1905, Minkowski and David Hilbert led an advanced seminar on electrodynamical theory]. x

Before 1905 Poincaré stressed the importance of the method of clocks and their synchronization by light signals. He gave a physical interpretation of Lorentz’s local time in terms of clock synchronization by light signals, and formulated a principle of relativity. However, Poincaré did not pronounce “the equivalence of the different local times of observers moving relative to each other”. Einstein was the first to do so

Poincaré

 John Stachel explains Poincaré’s clock synchronization: “Poincaré had interpreted the local time as that given by clocks at rest in a frame moving through the ether when synchronized as if – contrary to the basic assumptions of Newtonian kinematics – the speed of light were the same in all inertial frames. Einstein dropped the ether and the ‘as if’: one simply synchronized clocks by the Poincaré convention in each inertial frame and accepted that the speed of light really is the same in all inertial frames when measured with clocks so synchronized”. x

Einstein in the Patent Office

In the text of the lecture of the Cologne talk immediately after presenting Lorentz’s local time it is written: “However, the credit of first recognizing sharply that the time of the one electron is just as good as that of the other, i.e., that t and t’ are to be treated the same, is of A. Einstein”. And Minkowski referred to Einstein’s 1905 relativity paper and to his 1907 review article

Read my short paper (a note) on Einstein, Minkowski and Max Born’s recollections of Minkowski’s work

How many scientists did it take to make the discovery of Relativity – Special and General Theories? x

 Albert Einstein? or Albert Einstein, Michele Besso, Marcel Grossmann?… Read my latest paper

Besso, Special Relativity: Einstein ends his 1905 relativity paper by saying that he is indebted to Besso for several valuable suggestions. What could Besso’s valuable suggestions have been? Einstein’s biographer, Carl Seelig, wrote: “Later Besso […] used the following analogy: Einstein the eagle has taken Besso the sparrow under his wing. Then the sparrow fluttered a little higher: ‘I could not have found a better sounding-board in the whole of Europe’, Einstein remarked when the conversation turned one day to Besso. This way Einstein and Besso became inseparable”. x

In 1952 Besso recounted, “Another little fairy tale of mine concerning my view that I had participated in [the formulation of] the special theory of relativity. It seemed to me, as an electrical engineer, I must have brought up, in conversations with you, the question, within the context of Maxwell’s theory, of what is induced in the inductor of an alternator […]”: the Magnet and Conductor thought experiment that opens Einstein’s 1905 Relativity Paper. Maxwell’s theory was not yet on the official program of the Polytechnic School ETH (Einstein’s and Besso’s collage). It was probably Einstein’s self-reading about Maxwell’s theory, who explained to Besso about this theory. Only after such explanation could Besso within the context of Maxwell’s theory refer to his technical work and speak with Einstein or remind him about induction of which Einstein had already read about in books

Einstein and his closest friend, Michele Besso

Grossmann, General Relativity: When Einstein came back to Zurich in 1912 Marcel Grossmann looked through the literature, and discovered that the mathematical problem was already solved by Riemann, Ricci and Levi-Civita. Einstein collaborated with Grossmann and this led to the Einstein-Grossmann theory published in two joint papers. Just before writing the first paper with Grossmann, Einstein had struggled with these new tools in the Zurich Notebook. Einstein wrote Grossmann’s name and considered candidate field equations he would come back to in the first 1915 paper on General Relativity

In this paper Einstein wrote in the introduction, “I completely lost trust in my established field equations [of the Einstein-Grossmann theory], […]. Thus I arrived back at the demand of a broader general covariance for the field equations, from which I parted, though with a heavy heart, three years ago when I worked together with my friend Grossmann. As a matter of fact, we then have already come quite close to the solution of the problem given in the following”. x

Marcel Grossmann, Albert Einstein, Gustav Geissler and Marcel’s brother Eugen
during their time as students at the ETH- here

Besso, General Relativity: During a visit by Besso to Einstein in Zurich in June 1913 they both tried to solve the Einstein-Grossmann theory field equations to find the perihelion advance of Mercury in the “Einstein-Besso manuscript”. Besso was inducted by Einstein into the necessary calculations. Besso collaborated with Einstein on the wrong gravitational Einstein-Grossmann theory, and their calculation based on this theory gave a wrong result. In October 1915 Einstein abandoned the Einstein-Grossmann theory; he transferred the basic framework of the calculation from the Einstein-Besso manuscript, and corrected it according to his new 1915 General Relativity Theory with which he got the correct precession so quickly, because he was able to apply the methods he had already worked out two years earlier with Besso. Einstein though did not acknowledge his earlier work with Besso, and did not mention his name in his 1915 paper that explains the anomalous precession of Mercury

Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman – as his active partner. Yet, Einstein wrote that Grossman will never claim to be considered a co-discoverer of the Einstein-Grossmann theory – a theory very close to Einstein’s general theory of relativity that he published in November 1915. He only helped in guiding Einstein through the mathematical literature, but contributed nothing of substance to the results of the theory. Hence, Einstein neither considered Besso or Grossmann as co-discoverers or co-inventors of the relativity theory which he himself invented

Read also this paper, “How many scientists does it take to make a discovery? The era of the lone genius , as epitomised by Albert Einstein, has long gone”. Prof. Athene Donald, the author of the paper writes, “Ask people to conjure up an image of a scientist and Albert Einstein is most likely to pop into their head. The iconic image is of a lone genius beavering away in some secluded room until that familiar equation – E=mc2 – crystallised in his brain sufficiently to be written down. I very much doubt doing science was ever quite like that, but it is even more unlikely to apply now”. What do you think? x

אלברט איינשטיין – דרכו ליחסות Albert Einstein – pathway to theory of relativity

My Einstein and Relativity Papers – Gali Weinstein

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s Pathway to the General Theory of Relativity

The papers describe the genesis and history of special relativity and the discovery and history of general relativity – Einstein chases a light beam, the magnet and conductor thought experiment, Michelson-Morley experiment, emission theory, ether superfluous, Fizeau water-tube experiment, the principle of relativity and the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light (light postulate), The Step, Besso-Einstein meeting, Relativity 1905 paper. 1907 equivalence principle, lift experiments, Galileo principle, coordinate-dependant theory of relativity, Zurich Notebook, Einstein-Grossmann theory (Entwurf theory), deflection of light near the sun, Einstein’s struggles with Entwurf theory, hole argument, 1915 General Theory of Relativity: Hilbert – Einstein, precession or advance of Perihelion of Mercury, how Einstein found the generally covariant field equations, and Einstein’s 1916 general theory of relativity – Mach’s principle, rotating disk thought experiment, and point coincidence argument. These papers do not discuss the affine connection. For a discussion of the affine connection please consult Prof. John Stachel’s works

Philosophyof physics andof Special Relativity – papers discussing philosophical questions about space and time and interpretations of Special Relativity. A rigid body does not exist in the special theory of relativity, distant simultaneity defined with respect to a given frame of reference without reference to synchronized clocks, Einstein synchronization, challenges on Einstein’s connection of synchronization and Lorentz contraction, a theory of relativity without light – Ignatowski, Einstein’s composition of relative velocities – addition theorem for relative velocities, and space of relative velocities, Max Born and rigid body problem, Paul Ehrenfest’s paradox, relativity of simultaneity, Einstein’s clocks: Einstein’s 1905 Clock Paradox, Paul Langevin and the Twin Paradox

Poincaré and EinsteinThe inertial mass-energy equivalence, Lorentz’s theory of the electron violated the principle of action and reaction, Henri Poincaré trying to mend this violation, in 1905 Einstein showed that a change in energy is associated with a change in inertial mass equal to the change in energy divided by c2. Einstein and Poincaré– Method of clocks and their synchronization, Sur la dynamique de l’electron, Dynamics of the Electron, Einstein’s 1905 letter to Conrad Habicht, Poincaré’s 1905 letters to Lorentz, Poincaré’s spacetime mathematical theory of groups, As opposed to Einstein, before 1905 Poincaré stressed the importance of the method of clocks and their synchronization by light signals. Poincaré’s Lorentz group, Poincaré’s La Science et l’hypothèse  – Science and Hypothesis 

Innovation never comes from the established institutions… – Eric Schmidt

מאמרי איינשטיין והיחסות שלי – גלי וינשטיין

דרכו של איינשטיין ליחסות הפרטית.

דרכו של איינשטיין ליחסות הכללית.

אני מתכננת לפרסם ספר ולכן המאמרים הם טיוטא ולא גרסא סופית.

“חידוש אף פעם לא מגיע ממוסדות מוכרים” – אריק שמידט.

Einstein Archives – Jerusalem and Einstein Papers Project – Caltech

ארכיון איינשטיין

פרויקט איינשטיין

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