My new book on Einstein and the history of the general theory of relativity

Here is the dust jacket of my new scholarly book on the history of general relativity, to be released on… my Birthday:

General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries: Einstein’s polemics with Physicists.

Cover

The book is illustrated by me and discusses the history of general relativity, gravitational waves, relativistic cosmology and unified field theory between 1905 and 1955:

The development of general relativity (1905-1916), “low water mark” period and several results during the “renaissance of general relativity” (1960-1980).

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Conversations I have had more than a decade ago with my PhD supervisor, the late Prof. Mara Beller (from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem), comprise major parts of the preface and the general setting of the book. However, the book presents the current state of research and many new findings in history of general relativity.

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My first book:

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity (April, 2015)

includes a wide variety of topics including also the early history of general relativity.

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Einstein and 1915 General Relativity

My new paper shows that a correction of one mistake was crucial for Einstein’s pathway to the first version of the 1915 general theory of relativity, but also might have played a role in obtaining the final version of Einstein’s 1915 field equations. In 1914 Einstein wrote the equations for conservation of energy-momentum for matter, and established a connection between these equations and the components of the gravitational field. He showed that a material point in gravitational fields moves on a geodesic line in space-time, the equation of which is written in terms of the Christoffel symbols. By November 4, 1915, Einstein found it advantageous to use for the components of the gravitational field, not the previous equation, but the Christoffel symbols. He corrected the 1914 equations of conservation of energy-momentum for matter. Einstein had already basically possessed the field equations in 1912 together with his mathematician friend Marcel Grossman, but because he had not recognized the formal importance of the Christoffel symbols as the components of the gravitational field, he could “not obtain a clear overview”. Finally, considering the energy-momentum conservation equations for matter, an important similarity between equations suggests that, this equation could have assisted Einstein in obtaining the final form of the field equations (the November 25, 1915 ones) that were generally covariant.

My new paper on general relativity

Eisntein

 

Einstein’s pathway to his General Theory of Relativity

Einstein thought that when dealing with gravity high velocities are not so important. So in 1912 he thought about gravity in terms of the principle of relativity and not in terms of the constant-speed-of-light postulate (special relativity). But then he engaged in a dispute with other scholars who claimed that he gave up the central postulate of his special theory of relativity. x

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Max Abraham

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Gunnar Nordström

Einstein’s Pathway to his Equivalence Principle 1905-1907

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1912 – 1913 Static Gravitational Field Theory

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1913 – 1914 “Entwurf” theory

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Berlin “Entwurf” theory 1914

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The Einstein-Nordström Theory

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Dawn of “Entwarf theory”

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1915 Relativity Theory

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1916 General Theory of Relativity

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שנים לטנסור המטרי 100 Years of Metric Tensor

 לפני מאה שנים ב-2012 איינשטיין לראשונה אימץ את הטנסור המטרי. באחד ממאמריו איינשטיין סיפר לקורא שלו:”הדרך שבה אני עצמי עברתי, הייתה עקיפה ופתלתלה למדי, כי אחרת אינני יכול לקוות שהוא יתעניין יותר מידי בתוצאה של סוף המסע”, תורת היחסות הכללית. למטה מובאת רשימה של ספרים ומאמרים שנכתבו על ידי חוקרים מהעולם על דרכו של איינשטיין לתורת היחסות הכללית והפילוסופיה של היחסות הכללית.

A hundred years ago, in 1912, Einstein adopted the metric tensor. In one of his later papers Einstein told his reader about “the road that I have myself travelled, rather an indirect and bumpy road, because otherwise I cannot hope that he will take much interest in the result at the end of the journey”: the General theory of Relativity

Relatively speaking

The following  list of books and papers discussing Einstein’s Pathway to General Relativity and Philosophy of General Relativity covers the period 1912-1916, and beyond

Corry, Leo, Renn, Jürgen and John Stachel, “Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute”, 1997, in Stachel 2002, pp. 339-346

Corry, Leo, Renn, Jürgen and John Stachel, “Response to F. Winterberg ‘On Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute'”, 2004, Z. Naturforsen 59a, pp. 715-719

Earman, John, Janis, Allen, I., Massey, Gerald. I., and Rescher, Nicholas, Philosophical Problems of the Inertial and External Worlds, Essays of the philosophy of Adolf Grünbaum, 1993, University of Pittbsbutgh/ Universitätswerlag Konstanz

Earman, John, Janssen, Michel, Norton, John (ed), The Attraction of Gravitation, New Studies in the History of General Relativity, Einstein Studies Vol 5, 1993, Boston: Birkhäuser

Earman, John and Janssen, Michel, “Einstein’s Explanation of the Motion of Mercury’s Perihelion”, in Earman, Janssen, and Norton, John, 1993, pp. 129-172

Goener, Hubert, Renn Jürgen, Ritter, Jim, Sauer, Tilman (ed), The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity, 1999, Boston: Brikhäser

Howard, Don, “Point Coincidences and Pointer Coincidences: Einstein on Invariant Structure in Spacetime Theories”, in Goener et al, 1999, pp. 463-500

Howard, Don and Norton, John, “Out of the Labyrinth? Einstein, Hertz, and the Göttingen Answer to the Hole Argument”, in Earman, Janssen, Norton (ed), 1993, pp. 30-61

Howard, Don and Stachel, John (eds.), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies, Volume 1, 1989, New York: Birkhauser

Janssen, Michel, “The Einstein-De Sitter Debate and its Aftermath”, lecture, pp. 1-8, based on “The Einstein-De Sitter-Weyl-Klein Debate” in CPAE, Vol. 8, 1998, pp. 351-357

Janssen, Michel, “Rotation as the Nemesis of Einstein’s Entwurf Theory”, in Goener, Renn, Ritter and Sauer (ed), 1999, pp. 127-157

Janssen, Michel, “The Einstein-Besso Manuscript: A Glimpse Behind the Certain of a Wizard”, Freshman Colloquium: “Introduction to the Arts and Sciences”, Fall 2002

Janssen, Michel, “Of Pots and Holes: Einstein’s Bumpy Road to General Relativity”, in Renn, 2005, pp-58-85; reprinted as “Einstein’s First Systematic Exposition of General Relativity”, pp, 1-39

Janssen Michel and Renn, Jürgen, “Untying the Knot: How Einstein Found His Way Back to Field Equations Discarded in the Zurich Notebook”, in Renn et all, Vol. 1, 2007, pp. 839-925

Janssen, Michel, “What did Einstein know and When did he Know It?” in Renn et all, Vol. 2, 2007, pp. 786-837

Janssen, Michel, “‘No Success Like Failure’: Einstein’s Quest for General Relativity”, The Cambridge Companion to Einstein, 2009

Alfred Eisenstaedt, Einstein Life Magazine

Norton, John, “How Einstein Found His Field Equations: 1912-1915”, Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 14, 1984, pp. 253-315. Reprinted in Howard, Don and Stachel, John (eds.), 1989, pp 101-159

Norton, John, “General Covariance and the Foundations of General Relativity: Eight Decades of Dispute,” Reports on Progress in Physics 56, 1993, pp.791-858

Norton, John, “Einstein and Nordström: Some Lesser-Known Thought Experiments in Gravitation”, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 45, 1993, pp.17-94

Norton, John, “Nature in the Realization of the Simplest Conceivable Mathematical Ideas: Einstein and the Canon of Mathematical Simplicity”, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31, 2000, pp.135-170

Norton, John, “Einstein, Nordström and the early Demise of Lorentz-covariant, Scalar Theories of Gravitation,” in Renn et all, Vol. 3, 2007, pp. 413-487

Renn, Jürgen and Tilman Sauer, “Heuristics and mathematical Representation in Einstein Search for a Gravitational Field Equation”, Preprint 62, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, 1997

Renn, Jürgen, (ed.) Einstein’s Annalen Papers. The Complete Collection 1901-1922, 2005, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co

Renn, Jürgen, “The Summit Almost Scaled: Max Abraham as a Pioneer of a Relativistic Theory of Gravitation”, in Renn et all, Vol.3, 2007, pp. 305-330

Renn, Jürgen, Norton, John, Janssen, Michel and Stachel John, ed., The Genesis of General Relativity. 4 Vols., 2007, New York, Berlin: Springer

Renn, Jürgen and Stachel, John, “Hilbert’s Foundation of Physics: From a Theory of Everything to a Constituent of General Relativity”, in Renn et all, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 857-974

Time Magazine Photo

Stachel, John, “The Genesis of General Relativity”, Physics 100, 1979, pp. 428-442; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 233-244

Stachel, John, “The Rigidity Rotating Disk as the ‘Missing Link’ in the History of General Relativity”, General Relativity and Gravitation one Hundred Years After the Birth of Albert Einstein, Vol. 1, 1980, pp. 1-15; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 245-260

Stachel, John, “‘Subtle is the Lord'”… The Science and Life of Albert Einstein” by Abraham Pais”, Science 218, 1982, pp. 989-990; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 551-554

Stachel, John, “Albert Einstein: The Man beyond the Myth”, Bostonia Magazine 56, 1982, pp. 8–17; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 3-12

Stachel, John, “Einstein and the ‘Research Passion'”, Talk given at the Annual Meeting of the American Associates for the Advancement of Science in Detroit, May 1983; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 87-94

Stachel, John, “The Generally Covariant Form of Maxwell’s Equations”, in J.C. Maxwell, the Sesquicentennial Symposium, M.S. Berger (ed), 1984, Elsevier: Amsterdam, pp. 23-37.

Stachel, John, “What a Physicist Can Learn From the Discovery of General Relativity”, Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General relativity, ed. R. Ruffini, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1986, pp.1857-1862

Stachel, John, “How Einstein Discovered General Relativity: A Historical Tale With Some Contemporary Morals”, in MacCallum, M.A.H., General Relativity and Gravitation Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, 1987, pp. 200-209, reprinted in Satchel, 2002, pp. 293-300

Stachel, John, “Einstein’s Search for General Covariance 1912-1915”, in Howard, Don and Stachel John (eds), 1989, pp. 63-100; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 301-338

Stachel, John, “Albert Einstein (1897-1955), The Blackwell Companion to Jewish Culture, ed Glenda Abramson, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 198-199; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 19-20

Stachel, John, “the Meaning of General Covariance. The Hole Story”, in Earman, John, Janis, Allen, et all, 1993, pp. 129-160.

Stachel, John, “The Other Einstein: Einstein Contra Field Theory”, Science in Context 6, 1993, pp. 275-290; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 141-154

Stachel, John, “Changes in the Concept of Space and Time Brought About by Relativity”, Artifacts, Representations and Social Practice: Essays for Marx Wartofsky, eds Carol Gould and Robert S. Cohen., Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic, pp. 141-162

Stachel, John, “History of relativity,” in Brown, Laurie M., Pais, Abraham, and Sir Pippard, Brian (eds.), Twentieth century physics, 1995, New York: American Institute of Physics Press, pp. 249-356

Stachel, John, “Albert Einstein: A Biography by Albert Fölsing”, Review of Albrecht Fölsing, Albert Einstein: A Biography, in Physics Today, January, 1998; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 555-556

Stachel, John, “New Light on the Einstein-Hilbert Priority Question”, Journal of Astrophysics 20, 1999, pp. 90-91; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 353-364

Stachel, John, “Einstein and Infeld: Seen through Their Correspondence”, Acta Physica Polonica B 30, 1999, pp. 2879–2904; reprinted in Stachel, 2002, pp. 477–497

Stachel, John, “The First-two Acts”, in Renn et all, 2007, Vol. 1, pp. 81-112; appeared first in Stachel, 2002, pp. 261-292

Stachel, John, Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z’, 2002, Washington D.C.: Birkhauser

Stachel, John, “Albert Einstein”, The 2005 Mastermind Lecture, Proceedings of the British Academy 151, 2007, pp.423-458

Stachel, John, “Where is Creativity? The example of Albert Einstein”, Invited Lecture at the Congresso International de Filosophia, Pessoa & Sociadade (Person and Society), Braga, 17-19 November 2005, to appear in 2012

Stachel, John, “Einstein and Hilbert”, invited lecture in March 21, 2005 Session: Einstein and Friends, American Physical Society, Los Angeles; and response to Questions from FAZ on Hilbert and Einstein

Stachel, John, “Einstein’s Intuition and the Post-Newtonian Approximation”, World Scientific, 2006, pp. 1-15

Stachel, John, “The Story of Newstein: Or is Gravity Just Another Pretty Force?”, in Renn, et all, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 1041-1078

Stachel, John, “A world Without Time: the Forgotten Legacy of Gödel and Einstein”, Notices of the American Mathematical Society 54, 2007, pp. 861-868/1-8

Stachel, John, “Albert Einstein”, The New Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 2, Gale 2008, pp. 363-373

Stachel, John, “The Hole Argument”, Living Reviews in Relativity, June 25, 2010, to appear in 2012

Stachel, John, “The Rise and Fall of Einstein’s Hole Argument”, pp. 1-15 to appear in 2012

Stachel, John, “The Scientific Side of the Einstein-Besso Relationship”, to appear in 2012

Torretti, Roberto, Relativity and Geometry, 1983/1996, Ney-York: Dover

Prime Minister of Israel Ben Gurion visits Albert Einstein in Princeton. Here

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s discovery of Special Relativity

Einstein Believes in the Ether

Einstein Chases a Light Beam

Einstein recounts the Aarau thought experiment in his Autobiographical Notes, 1949

Magnet and Conductor Thought Experiment, Faraday’s magneto-electric induction

Föppl’s book on Maxwell’s theory

Ether drift and Michelson and Morley’s experiment

The Role of the Michelson-Morley Experiment on the Discovery of Relativity

The Dayton Miller Experiments

Emission theory and ether drift experiments

Paul Ehrenfest and Walter Ritz. Ritz’s Emission Theory

“The Step”

Einstein defined distant simultaneity physically; relativity of simultaneity

The Kyoto lecture notes – Einstein could have visited and consulted his close friend Michele Besso, whom he thanked at the end of his relativity paper. The Patent Office brought them together – their conversations on the way home. Besso was always eager to discuss the subjects of which he knew a great deal – sociology, medicine, mathematics, physics and philosophy – Einstein initiated him into his discovery

Joseph Sauter – Before any other theoretical consideration, Einstein pointed out the necessity of a new definition of synchronization of two identical clocks distant from one another; to fix these ideas, he told him, “suppose one of the clocks is on a tower at Bern and the other on a tower at Muri (the ancient aristocratic annex of Bern)” – synchronization of clocks by light signals.

Did Poincaré have an Effect on Einstein’s Pathway toward the Special Theory of Relativity? Einstein’s reply to Carl Seelig

Poincaré

Einstein’s pathway to the General Theory of Relativity

Entwurf theory – Einstein-Grossmann theory, Hole argument, field equations and the Einstein-Besso manuscript

Grossmann

Gunnar Nordström develops a competing theory of gravitation to Einstein’s 1912-1913 gravitation theory. Einstein begins to study Nordström’s theory and develops his own Einstein-Nordström theory. In a joint 1914 paper with Lorentz’s student Adrian Fokker – a generally covariant formalism is presented from which Nordström’s theory follows if the velocity of light is constant Here

Nordström

The three problems that led to the fall of the entwurf theory –

The gravitational field on a uniformly rotating system does not satisfy the field equations.

Covariance with respect to adapted coordinate system was a flop.

In the Entwurf theory the motion of Mercury’s perihelion came to 180 rather than 450 per century

The General Theory of Relativity – 1915

David Hilbert Enters the Game, the priority dispute – Einstein and Hilbert

In November 18 1915 Einstein calculated rapidly the precession of Mercury’s

Perihelion

Geodesic Equation. Metric tensor. Einstein’s November 4, 11, and 25 field equations.The Riemann-Christoffel Tensor; the Ricci tensor; the Einstein tensor

von Deinem zufriedenen aber ziemlich kaputen

General Theory of Relativity – 1916

Mid December to Mid January 1915: Exchange of letters between Einstein and Ehrenfest

The disk thought experiment; coordinates have no direct physical meaning Euclidean Geometry breaks down; two Globes Thought Experiment; Mach’s Principle; the principle of general relativity; the Equivalence Principle; the principle of general covariance

The Summation Convention

Motion of the Perihelion of the Planetary Orbit; Redshift; Deflection of light in a gravitational field of the sun

Einstein in the Patent Office:

Michele Besso, Joseph Sauter, and Lucian Chavan – Patent Office, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht – the Olympian Academy

Annus mirabilis papers

On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Generation and Transformation of Light – It argues a heuristic manner for the existence of light quanta and derives the photoelectric law

On a New Determination of Molecular Dimensions – doctoral thesis submitted to the mathematical and natural science branch of Zürich University

On the Movement of Particles Suspended in Fluids at Rest, as Postulated by the Molecular Theory of Heat. The Brownian motion paper

On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. The Relativity Paper

Does the Inertia of a Body Depend on its Energy Content? The first derivation of the mass energy equivalence

German Scientists Responded to Einstein’s Relativity Paper – Max Planck wrote Einstein. Max von Laue met Einstein

Einstein teaches his 3 friends from the Patent Office at the University of Bern

Finally Einstein leaves the Patent Office to his first post in the University of Zürich

Further reading: Stachel, John, Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z’, 2002, Washington D.C.: Birkhauser