Some of the topics discussed in my first book, Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

People ask questions about Einstein’s special theory of relativity: How did Einstein come up with the theory of special relativity? What did he invent? What is the theory of special relativity? How did Einstein discover special relativity? Was Einstein the first to arrive at special relativity? Was Einstein the first to invent E = mc2?

Did Poincaré publish special relativity before Einstein? Was Einstein’s special theory of relativity revolutionary for scientists of his day? How did the scientific community receive Einstein’s theory of special relativity when he published it? What were the initial reaction in the scientific community after Einstein had published his paper on special relativity?

In my book, Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity, I try to answer these and many other questions.The topics discussed in my book are the following:

I start with Einstein’s childhood and school days.

img_4149a

I then discuss Einstein’s student days at the Zurich Polytechnic. Einstein the rebellious cannot take authority, the patent office, Annus Mirabilis, University of Bern and University of Zurich, Minkowski’s space-time formalism of special relativity.

תמונה2

Young Einstein, Aarau Class 1896

Additional topics treeated in my book are the following: Fizeau’s water tube experiment, Fresnel’s formula (Fresnel’s dragging coefficient), stellar aberration, and the Michelson and Michelson-Morley Experiments.

Einpt

Albert Einstein at the Patent office

Mileva Marić and Einstein

תמונה4

img_4152a

img_4152b

Eduard Tete, Mileva Marić and Hans Albert

תמונה6

Einstein’s road to the special theory of relativity: Einstein first believes in the ether, he imagines the chasing a light beam thought experiment and the magnet and conductor thought experiment. Did Einstein respond to the Michelson and Morley experiment? Emission theory, Fizeau’s water tube experiment and ether drift experiments and Einstein’s path to special relativity; “The Step”.

G3

Henri Poincaré’s possible influence on Einstein’s road to the special theory of relativity.

p0038x8l_640_360

Einstein’s methodology and creativity, special principle of relativity and principle of constancy of the velocity of light, no signal moves beyond the speed of light, rigid body and special relativity, the meaning of distant simultaneity, clock synchronization, Lorentz contraction, challenges to Einstein’s connection of synchronisation and Lorentz contraction, Lorentz transformation with no light postulate, superluminal velocities, Laue’s derivation of Fresnel’s formula, the clock paradox and twin paradox, light quanta, mass-energy equivalence, variation of mass with velocity, Kaufmann’s experiments, the principles of relativity as heuristic principles, and Miller ether drift experiments.

Sagan

The book also briefly discusses general relativity: Einstein’s 1920 “Geometry and Experience” talk (Einstein’s notion of practical geometry), equivalence principle, equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, Galileo’s free fall, generalized principle of relativity, gravitational time dilation, the Zurich Notebook, theory of static gravitational fields, the metric tensor, the Einstein-Besso manuscript, Einstein-Grossmann Entwurf theory and Entwurf field equations, the hole argument, the inertio-gravitational field, Einstein’s general relativity: November 1915 field equations, general covariance and generally covariant field equations, the advance of Mercury’s perihelion, Schwarzschild’s solution and singularity, Mach’s principle, Einstein’s 1920 suggestion: Mach’s ether, Einstein’s static universe, the cosmological constant, de Sitter’s universe, and other topics in general relativity and cosmology which lead directly to my second book, General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries.

Einstein2

My books

Einstein2

Advertisements

My book: Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

2015 marks several Albert Einstein anniversaries: 100 years since the publication of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, 110 years since the publication of the Special Theory of Relativity and 60 years since his passing.

G2

What is so special about this year that deserves celebrations? My new book on Einstein: Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity has just been returned from the printers and I expect Amazon to have copies very shortly.

img_4153b

The Publisher uploaded the contents and intro.

Cam

I hope you like my drawing on the cover:

Ein

Einstein, 1923: “Ohmmm, well… yes, I guess!”

albert-einstein-lg-1

G3

The book is dedicated to the late Prof. Mara Beller, my PhD supervisor from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem who passed away ten years ago and wrote the book: Quantum Dialogue (Chicago University Press, 1999):

images

Have a very happy Einstein year!

June 30. Ether is superfluous: Faraday and Einstein

On this day in 1905 Albert Einstein’s paper, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” arrived at the editorial offices of the journal Annalen der Physik. The paper was published three months later, and the theory later became known as special relativity. Physics Today.

Einpt

On April 15, 1846 Faraday gave a lecture at the Royal Institution. The talk was delivered under the title “Thoughts of Ray Vibrations”.  

Faraday began saying: “I incline to believe that when there are intervening particles of matter (being themselves only centers of force), they take part in carrying on the force through the line, but when there are none, the line proceeds through space… we can at all events affect these lines of force in a manner which may be conceived as partaking of the nature of a shake or lateral vibration…
It may be asked, what lines of force are there in nature which are fitted to convey such an action and supply for the vibrating theory the place of the aether?” The lines of force could be electrical, magnetic or gravitational. “…all I can say is, that I do not perceive in any part of space, whether (to use the common phrase) vacant of filled with matter, anything but forces and the lines in which they are exerted…
The view which I am so bold to put forth considers, therefore, radiation as a high species of vibration in the lines of force which are known to connect particles and also masses of matter together. It endeavours to dismiss the aether, but not the vibrations”.
In addition, Faraday explains that the vibrations that occur on the surface of disturbed water, or the waves of sound in gases or liquids, are “direct or to and fro from the centre of action”, whereas the (radiant) vibrations are “lateral”.
Faraday then explains the problem that is inherent in an ether model. He writes that it seems to him, “that the resultant of two or more lines of force is an apt condition for that action which may be considered as equivalent to a lateral vibration; whereas a uniform medium, like the ether does not appear apt, or more apt than air or water”.

Faraday’s lines of force inspired Maxwell in developing electric and magnetic field theory, but Maxwell did not follow Faraday in rejecting the ether. Maxwell developed mechanical models for the ether.

1833_1_1

Michael Faraday

Einstein, apparently not knowing about Faraday’s 1846 rejection of the ether, started his 1905 relativity paper with the problematic asymmetries that were inherent in the electrodynamical explanation of the phenomenon of induction by Faraday. Hence, Einstein started with Faraday.

According to Faraday, when a magnet and a closed electric circuit are in relative motion, an electric current is induced in the electric circuit. This current is actually a result of the relative motion between the magnet and the conductor.
If the conductor is at rest in the ether and the magnet is moved with a given velocity, a certain electric current is induced in the conductor. If the magnet is at rest, and the conductor moves with the same relative velocity, a current of the same magnitude and direction is in the conductor. The ether theory gives a different explanation for the origin of this current in the two cases. In the first case an electric field is supposed to be created in the ether by the motion of the magnet relative to it (Faraday’s induction law). In the second case, no such electric field is supposed to be present since the magnet is at rest in the ether, but the current results from the motion of the conductor through the static magnetic field.

This asymmetry of the explanation is foreign to the phenomenon, because the observable phenomena (the current in the conductor) depend only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet.

Parts of Faraday’s talk are also quoted in “Fields of Force: The Development of a World View from Faraday to Einstein”,  By William Berkson, pp. 97-99.

Centenary of the Death of Poincaré – Einstein and Poincaré 2012 פואנקרה ואיינשטיין

לרגל מאה שנה למותו של פואנקרה, פרסמתי בשלושה חלקים מחקר על הנרי פואנקרה, תרומתו בתחום של תורת האלקטרון והאלקטרודינמיקה של הגופים בתנועה והשאלה האם פואנקרה הגיע לתורת יחסות ולגילויים שאותם אנו מוצאים בתורת היחסות הפרטית לפני או במקביל לאיינשטיין. כמובן שהשאלה היא מעט יותר מורכבת ולא פשטנית כפי שהצגתי אותה כאן. בנושא זה כתבתי את עבודת הדוקטורט שלי והמאמרים הם סיכום ועדכון של הדוקטורט שלי שנכתב לפני 14 שנה.

A Biography of Poincaré  – Researcher in dynamics of the electron and electrodynamics –  2012 Centenary of the Death of Poincaré. Here

On January 4, 2012 (the centenary of Henri Poincaré’s death) a colloquium was held in Nancy, France the subject of which was “Vers une biographie d’Henri Poincaré”. Scholars discussed several approaches for writing a biography of Poincaré

 

I present a personal and scientific biographical sketch of Poincaré and his contributions to electrodynamics of moving bodies, which does not in any way reflect Poincaré’s rich personality and immense activity in science. When Poincaré traveled to parts of Europe, Africa and America, his companions noticed that he knew well everything from statistics to history and curious customs and habits of peoples. He was almost teaching everything in science. He was so encyclopedic that he dealt with the outstanding questions in the different branches of physics and mathematics; he had altered whole fields of science such as non-Euclidean geometry, Arithmetic, celestial mechanics, thermodynamics and kinetic theory, optics, electrodynamics, Maxwell’s theory, and other topics from the forefront of Fin de Siècle physical science

As opposed to the prosperity of biographies and secondary papers studying the life and scientific contributions of Albert Einstein, one finds much less biographies and secondary sources discussing Poincaré’s life and work. Unlike Einstein, Poincaré was not a cultural icon. Beginning in 1920 Einstein became a myth and a world famous figure. Although Poincaré was so brilliant in mathematics, he mainly remained a famous mathematician within the professional circle of scientists. He published more papers than Einstein, performed research in many more branches of physics and mathematics, received more prizes on his studies, and was a member of more academies in the whole world. Despite this tremendous yield, Poincaré did not win the Nobel Prize

Most famous is Poincaré’s philosophy of conventionalism, which sprang out of his research into geometry during a period (the end of the 1880’s) when non-Euclidean geometries were a matter of a consistent possibility. Poincaré developed two kinds of conventionalism, conventionalism applicable to geometry and conventionalism for the principles of physics. Both sprang from Poincaré’s mathematical group theory

In addition to the geometries of Euclid, Lobachewski, and Riemann, Poincaré proposed another geometry, the truth of which was not incompatible with the other geometries; he called it the “fourth geometry”. The first time that Poincaré’s fourth geometry appeared in print was in 1891

Einstein did not feel at ease with Poincaré’s standpoint. In 1992 Michel Paty commented on Einstein’s presentation of Poincaré’s conventionalism in 1921, “Actually this is not exactly Poincaré’s point of view, but a translation of it made by Einstein in his own perspective, that is according to his conception of physical Geometry”. See

Scott Walter’s papers here

And Peter Galison’s book Einstein’s Clocks, Poincare’s Maps here

Review by John Stachel: here and by Alberto Martínez here

Scientific contributions in electrodynamics: Before 1905, Poincaré stressed the importance of the method of clocks and their synchronization, but unlike Einstein, magnet and conductor (asymmetries in Lorentz’s theory regarding the explanation of Faraday’s induction) or chasing a light beam and overtaking it, were not a matter of great concern for him

In 1905 Poincaré elaborated Lorentz’s electron theory from 1904 in two papers entitled “On the Dynamics of the Electron”. Poincaré’s theory was a space-time mathematical theory of groups at the basis of which stood the postulate of relativity; Einstein’s 1905 theory was a kinematical theory of relativity

Poincaré did not renounce the ether. He wrote a new law of addition of velocities, but he did not abandon the tacit assumptions made about the nature of time, simultaneity, and space measurements implicit in Newtonian kinematics

Although he questioned absolute time and absolute simultaneity, he did not make new kinematical tacit assumptions about space and time. He also did not require reciprocity of the appearances, and therefore did not discover relativity of simultaneity

These are the main hallmarks of Einstein’s special theory of relativity. Nevertheless, Poincaré had arrived at many novel findings that went way beyond Fin de Siècle physics. here

Here

Read other point of views: Olivier Darrigol’s papers here and here

Darrigol, Olivier, “Henri Poincaré’s criticism of fin de siècle electrodynamics”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26, 1995, pp. 1-44. here

Darrigol, Olivier, Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein, 2000, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Here

Mass-energy equivalence: In 1900 Poincaré considered a device creating and emitting electromagnetic waves. The device emits energy in all directions. As a result of the energy being emitted, it recoils. No motion of any other material body compensates for the recoil at that moment. Poincaré found that as a result of the recoil of the oscillator, in the moving system, the oscillator generating the electromagnetic energy suffers an “apparent complementary force”. In addition, in order to demonstrate the non-violation of the theorem of the motion of the centre of gravity, Poincaré needed an arbitrary convention, the “fictitious fluid”

Einstein demonstrated that if the inertial mass E/c2 is associated with the energy E, and on assuming the inseparability of the theorem of the conservation of mass and that of energy, then – at least as a first approximation – the theorem of the conservation of the motion of the centre of gravity is also valid for all systems in which electromagnetic processes take place

Before 1905 (and also afterwards) Poincaré did not explore the inertial mass-energy equivalence

Einstein was the first to explore the inertial mass-energy equivalence. In 1905 Einstein showed that a change in energy is associated with a change in inertial mass equal to the change in energy divided by c2

Here

For a different point of view: Darrigol, Olivier, “Poincaré, Einstein, et l’inertie de l’énergie”, Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences IV 1, 2000, pp. 143-153. Here

See also this paper by Stephen Boughn and  Tony Rothman. A report of the paper here

Here

Did Poincaré influence Einstein on his way to the Special theory of relativity? One differentiates two kinds of questions here

  1What was the effect of Poincaré’s studies on the development of the Special Theory of relativity? and

 2What was the effect Poincaré’s research may have had on the development of Einstein’s own pathway towards the Special Theory of Relativity? hence

Poincaré did contribute to the theory of relativity a great deal. His 1905 space-time theory of groups greatly influenced Minkowski on his way to reformulate and recast mathematically the special theory of relativity. In addition, he arrived at many interesting ideas. However, it appears from examining the primary sources that Poincaré did not influence Einstein on his route to the special theory of relativity. See my papers here