A Century of General Relativity מאה שנה ליחסות הכללית

Hebrew University of Jerusalem celebrates the anniversary of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity (GTR) in a four-day conference:

Space-Time Theories: Historical and Philosophical Contexts

Monday-Thursday, January 5-8, 2015, in Jerusalem, the van Leer Jerusalem Institute. The conference brings together physicists, historians and philosophers of science from Israel and the world, all working from different perspectives on problems inspired by GTR. It is the first among three conferences planned to celebrate the centenary of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, the last of which will take place in the Max Planck Institute in Berlin on December 5, 2015, my next birthday. I am not on the list of speakers of the conference, but it says that admission is free.

בין ה-5-8 לינואר 2015 יתקיים כנס לציון 100 שנה להולדת תורת היחסות הכללית של איינשטיין. הכנס יתקיים במכון ואן ליר בירושלים ליד בית הנשיא. בכנס יישאו דברים היסטוריונים ופילוסופים של המדע שעוסקים בתחום וכן פיסיקאים. הוא הכנס הראשון מבין שלושה שמאורגנים בתחום. הראשון מאורגן באוניברסיטה העברית והאחרון במכון מקס פלאנק: יתקיים בדיוק בעוד שנה ביום ההולדת הבא שלי ב-5 לדצמבר, 2015. אני אמנם לא ברשימת הדוברים של הכנס בירושלים, אבל המודעה מציינת שהכניסה חופשית. בכנס הקודם מ-2005, שציין מאה שנים להולדת תורת היחסות הפרטית של איינשטיין במכון ואן ליר, זכורים היטב דברי הפתיחה של הנשיא ד’אז משה קצב

einstein

Einstein wrote Max Born on May 12, 1952:

“The generalization of gravitation is now, at last, completely convincing and unequivocal formally unless the good Lord has chosen a totally different way of which one can have no conception. The proof of the theory is unfortunately far too difficult for me. Man is, after all, only a poor wretch… Even if the deflection of light, the perihelial movement or line shift were unknown, the gravitation equations would still be convincing because they avoid the inertial system (the phantom which affects everything but is not itself affected). It is really rather strange that human beings are normally deaf to the strongest arguments while they are always inclined to overestimate measuring accuracies”.

What did Einstein mean by saying “the gravitation equations would still be convincing…”? “In June 9, 1952 Einstein wrote an appendix to the fifteenth edition of his popular 1917 book Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie Gemeinverständlich (On the Special and the General Theory of Relativity). In this appendix he explained:

“I wished to show that space-time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept “empty space” loses its meaning”.

The centenary of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s first big project on Gravitation in Berlin was to complete by October 1914 a summarizing long review article of his Einstein-Grossmann theory. The paper was published in November 1914. This version of the theory was an organized and extended version of his works with Marcel Grossmann, the most fully and comprehensive theory of gravitation; a masterpiece of what would finally be discovered as faulty field equations.

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On November 4, 1915 Einstein wrote his elder son Hans Albert Einstein, “In the last days I completed one of the finest papers of my life; when you are older I’ll tell you about it”. The day this letter was written Einstein presented this paper to the Prussian Academy of Sciences. The paper was the first out of four papers that corrected his November 1914 review paper. Einstein’s work on this paper was so intense during October 1915 that he told Hans Albert in the same letter, “I am often so in my work, that I forget lunch”.

Einstein

In the first November 4 1915 paper, Einstein gradually expanded the range of the covariance of his field equations. Every week he expanded the covariance a little further until he arrived on November 25 1915 to fully generally covariant field equations. Einstein’s explained to Moritz Schlick that, through the general covariance of the field equations, “time and space lose the last remnant of physical reality. All that remains is that the world is to be conceived as a four-dimensional (hyperbolic) continuum of four dimensions” (Einstein to Schlick, December 14, 1915, CPAE 8, Doc 165) John Stachel explains the meaning of this revolution in space and time, in his book: Stachel, John, Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z’, 2002; see p. 323).

Albert Einstein as a Young Man

These are a few of my papers on Einstein’s pathway to General Relativity:

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1201.5352

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1201.5353

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1201.5358

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1202.2791

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1202.4305

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1204.3386

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1309.6590

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1310.1033

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1205.5966

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1310.2890

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1310.6541

Stay tuned for my next centenary of GTR post!

Celebrating the centennial of Einstein’s general relativity. (next year)…

“Shaken to its depths by the tragic catastrophe in Palestine, Jewry must now show that it is truly equal to the great task it has undertaken. It goes without saying that our devotion to the cause and our determination to continue the work of peaceful construction will not be weakened in the slightest by any such set-back. But what has to be done to obviate any possibility of a recurrence of such horrors?

The first and most important necessity is the creation of a modus vivendi with the Arab people”.

Albert Einstein, August 1929. (here)

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Einstein attends a concert with Helen Dukas at the Great Synagogue in Berlin, 1930.

On December 10, 1915 Einstein told his best friend Michele Besso that his wildest dreams have now come true: general covariance and the perihelion of Mercury. Einstein wished Besso best regards and signed “your satisfied kaput Albert”.

Sometime in October 1915 Einstein dropped his old Einstein-Grossman theory, but he realized that the key to the solution lies in his 1914 review article “The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity”. He was finally led to general covariance. Starting on November 4 1915, Einstein gradually expanded the range of the covariance of his field equations.

Between November 4 and November 11, 1915, Einstein simplified the field equations, and was able to write them in general covariant form in an addendum to the November 4 paper, published on November 11. But there still remained difficulties.

On Thursday, November 18, Einstein presented to the Prussian Academy his solution to the longstanding problem of the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, on the basis of his November 11 general theory of relativity. Today, exactly one year from now the world will celebrate one hundred years to this achievement. Mazal Tov.

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Between November 18 and November 25 Einstein found that he could write the field equations with an additional term on the right hand side of the field equations involving the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, which now need not vanish. Hence, Einstein resolved the final difficulties of his November 11 1915 theory of gravitation in his final November 25 1915 paper. These were the November 25 1915 field equations.

How did Einstein do this? Read my two papers (one and two) and see how Einstein solved the problem.

 

Ein12

In winter 1916 Einstein exchanged letters with his friend from Leiden Paul Ehrenfest and rederived the November 25, 1915 field equations. How did Einstein do this? Read my two papers (one and two) and find out.

Einstein elaborated his 1912 Disk thought experiment, and his 1914 thought experiment, originally suggested by Newton in the Principia, the Two Globes thought experiment. After presenting the 1905 magnet and conductor thought experiment, Einstein wrote, “Examples of this sort … lead to the conjecture that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as those of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest”. The globes thought experiment was intended to demonstrate that this could be extended to accelerated motions and to the theory of gravitation using Mach’s principle (still not defined as a principle).