In 2013 **Juan Maldacena** and **Leonard Susskind** demonstrated that the Einstein Rosen bridge between two black holes is created by EPR-like correlations between the microstates of the two black holes. They called this the ER = EPR relation, a geometry–entanglement relationship: entangled particles are connected by a Schwarzschild wormhole. In other words, the ER bridge is a special kind of EPR correlation. Maldacena and Susskind’s conjecture was that these two concepts, ER and EPR, are related by more than a common publication date 1935. If any two particles are connected by entanglement, the physicists suggested, then they are effectively joined by a wormhole. And vice versa: the connection that physicists call a wormhole is equivalent to entanglement. They are different ways of describing the same underlying reality.

Maldacena and Susskind explain that one cannot use EPR correlations to send information faster than the speed of light. Similarly, Einstein Rosen bridges do not allow us to send a signal from one asymptotic region to the other, at least when suitable positive energy conditions are obeyed. This is sometimes stated as saying that (Schwarzschild) Lorentzian wormholes are not traversable.

In 2017, however, **Ping Gao, Daniel Louis Jafferis, and Aron C. Wall** showed that the **ER = EPR allows the Einstein-Rosen bridge to be traversable**. This finding comes with implications for **the black hole information paradox** (of Stephen Hawking) and black hole interiors because hypothetically, an observer **can enter a Schwarzschild black hole and then escape to tell about what they have seen**. This suggests that black hole interiors really exist and that what goes in must come out and we can learn about the information that falls inside black holes.

Consider a light signal, traveling through the throat of the wormhole. In 1962, Robert Fuller and John Archibald Wheeler were troubled by the apparent possibility that a test particle, or a photon, could pass from one point in space to another point in space, distanced perhaps extremely far away, in a negligible interval of time. Such rapid communication of a particle or a photon, passing through an Einstein-Rosen bridge violates elementary principles of relativity and causality, according to which a light signal cannot exceed the speed of light.

Wheeler and Fuller, however, showed that relativity and causality, despite first expectations, are not violated. It is perfectly possible to write down a mathematical expression for the metric of a space-time which has simple Schwarzschild wormhole geometry. However, when we deal with the passage of light by the “long way” from one wormhole mouth to the other, both on the same space, the throat becomes dynamically unstable and the Einstein-Rosen bridge is non-traversable (see figure, middle).

What would cause an Einstein-Rosen bridge to be traversable? Recall that according to the ER = EPR, an Einstein Rosen bridge between two black holes is created by EPR-like correlations between the microstates of the two black holes. In 2017 scholars found that if one extends the ER = EPR conjecture by equating, not a Schwarzschild wormhole between two black holes and a pair of entangled particles, but a Schwarzschild wormhole and a situation which is somewhat analogous to what occurs in **quantum teleportation** (between the two sides of the wormhole), then **the Einstein-Rosen bridge becomes traversable**.

Entanglement alone cannot be used to transmit information and we need quantum teleportation because the qubit is actually transmitted through the wormhole say Gao, Jafferis and Wall: “Suppose Alice and Bob share a maximally entangled pair of qubits, A and B. Alice can then transmit [teleport] the qubit Q to Bob by sending only the classical output of a measurement on the Q-A system. Depending on which of the 4 possible results are obtained, Bob will perform a given unitary operation on the qubit B, which is guaranteed to turn it into the state Q”. But: “Of course in the limit that Alice’s measurement is essentially instantaneous and classical, the traversable window will be very small … — just enough to let the single qubit Q pass through. Therefore, we propose that the gravitational dual description of quantum teleportation understood as a dynamical process is that the qubit passes through the ER=EPR wormhole of the entangled pair, A and B, which has been rendered traversable by the required interaction”.

Next, say Alice throws qubit Q into black hole A. She then measures a particle of its Hawking radiation, *a*, and transmits the result of the measurement through the external universe to Bob, who can use this knowledge to operate on *b*, a Hawking particle coming out of black hole B. Bob’s operation reconstructs Q, which appears to pop out of B, a perfect match for the particle that fell into A. The new traversable ER = EPR wormhole allows information to be recovered from black holes. Thus, Gao, Jafferis and Wall write regarding the black hole information paradox:

“Another possible interpretation of our result is to relate it to the recovery of information … [from evaporating black holes]. Assuming that black hole evaporation is unitary, it is in principle possible to eventually recover a qubit which falls into a black hole, from a quantum computation acting on the Hawking radiation. Assuming that you have access to an auxiliary system maximally entangled with the black hole, and that the black hole is an efficient scrambler of information, it turns out that you only need a small (order unity) additional quantity of Hawking radiation to reconstruct the qubit. In our system, the qubit may be identified with the system that falls into the black hole from the left and gets scrambled, the auxiliary entangled system is … on the right, and the boundary interaction somehow triggers the appropriate quantum computation to make the qubit reappear again, after a time of order the scrambling time”. …

Thus, the Gao, Jafferis, Wall **ER = EPR wormhole** idea seems to extend to the so-called real world as long as two black holes are causally connected and coupled in the right way. If you allow the Hawking radiation from one of the black holes to fall into the other, the two black holes become entangled, and the quantum information that falls into one can exit the other. Thus, Gao, Jafferis and Wall conclude:

“Our example thus provides a way to operationally verify a salient feature of ER=EPR that observers from opposite sides of an entangled pair of systems may meet in the connected interior. … What we found is that if, after the observers jump into their respective black holes, a … coupling is activated, then the Einstein-Rosen [bridge] can be rendered traversable, and the meeting inside may be seen from the boundary. This seems to suggest that the ER=EPR wormhole connection was physically ‘real'”.

Finally **the ER = EPR wormhole does not require energy-matter that violates the average null energy condition; the negative energy matter in the ER = EPR configuration is similar to the Casimir effect**, and any infinite null geodesic which makes it through the ER = EPR wormhole must be chronal, i.e. **the ER = EPR wormhole does not violate Hawking’s chronology protection conjecture**. In addition, **the ER = EPR wormhole does not violate the generalized second law of thermodynamics**.

**Therefore, the ER = EPR wormhole is not a configuration with closed time-like curves** **and it, therefore, does not permit one to travel faster than light over long distances through space; in other words, it cannot serve as a time machine and thus does not violate causality.**

For further details:

Natalie Wolchover, Newfound Wormhole Allows Information to Escape Black Holes

Not even wrong.

It seems it is falsifiable. Although we cannot pull a wormhole from the quantum foam, in 2017 Leonard Susskind and Ying Zhao published a paper, “Teleportation Through the Wormhole”, in which they write (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.04354.pdf):

“The operations we’ve described would be very hard to do, if not impossible, for real black holes, but we can imagine laboratory settings where similar things may be possible. Suppose that in our lab we have two non-interacting large shells of matter, each of which has been engineered by condensed matter physicists to support conformal field theories of the kind that admit gravitational duals. If we make the two shells out of entangled matter we can produce the shells in the thermofield double state for some temperature above the Hawking-Page transition.

There is no obstruction to constructing the shells so that the speed of signal propagation in the shells is much slower than the speed of light in the laboratory. The experimenters

would not be limited by the signal velocity in the shells, and could run back and forth between the shells in a time which is negligible from the CFT perspective. We may also

suppose that without violating any laws of quantum mechanics they could measure any observable, and apply any unitary operator to either shell.

We can also eliminate any gravitational restrictions—for example concerns that the shells would gravitationally collapse—by assuming that the gravitational coupling is as small as necessary. To summarize, we may assume the laboratory system is non-relativistic and that gravity exists but is negligible.

Would there really be a hidden wormhole connecting the shells? Assuming that the entire laboratory is embedded in a world that satisfies ER=EPR, then yes, there would be such a wormhole. To confirm this Alice and Bob can merge themselves with the matter forming the shells and eventually be scrambled into the CFT thermal state. In the dual gravitational picture they would each fall into their respective black holes, and if conditions

were right, they would meet before being destroyed at the singularity; all of this taking place in some space outside ordinary spacetime. Unfortunately they would not be able to

inform the exterior world that the wormhole is real or that they successfully met.

However, quantum teleportation allows Alice and Bob to confirm the existence of the wormhole without jumping in”. ….

I will only say about the EPR paradox. I think it does not exist.

This is usually described as follows: Two particles with a complete zero momentum are considered that fly away from each other a sufficient distance so that they cannot interact.

For one particle, the coordinate is measured, and for another momentum. Then, as E., P., and R. thought, for the second particle both the momentum and the coordinate will be accurately measured, which is impossible.

That is, they assumed that measuring the coordinates of the first particle would give us knowledge about the coordinate of the second particle.

In my opinion, this is not true. I offer a very simple experience (it was probably done a long time ago). On the path of these two particles with zero total momentum, we put two screens (detectors). Let the first particle get to point A, and the second to point B. We connect A and B by a straight line. Question: Will this line go through the point where the particles flew from? In the case of billiard balls, it would be. My statement: for microparticles it is not.