**My Einstein and Relativity Papers – Gali Weinstein**

Einstein’s Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s Pathway to the General Theory of Relativity

*The papers describe the genesis and history of special relativity and the discovery and history of general relativity – Einstein chases a light beam, the magnet and conductor thought experiment, Michelson-Morley experiment, emission theory, ether superfluous, Fizeau water-tube experiment, the principle of relativity and the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light (light postulate), The Step, Besso-Einstein meeting, Relativity 1905 paper. 1907 equivalence principle, lift experiments, Galileo principle, coordinate-dependant theory of relativity, Zurich Notebook, Einstein-Grossmann theory (Entwurf theory), deflection of light near the sun, Einstein’s struggles with Entwurf theory, hole argument, 1915 General Theory of Relativity: Hilbert – Einstein, *precession* or advance of Perihelion of Mercury, how Einstein found the generally covariant field equations, and Einstein’s 1916 general theory of relativity – Mach’s principle, rotating disk thought experiment, and point coincidence argument. These papers do not discuss the affine connection. For a discussion of the affine connection please consult Prof. John Stachel’s works*

*Philosophy**of physics and**of Special Relativity –** papers discussing philosophical questions about space and time and interpretations of Special Relativity. A rigid body does not exist in the special theory of relativity, distant simultaneity defined with respect to a given frame of reference without reference to synchronized clocks, Einstein synchronization, challenges on Einstein’s connection of synchronization and Lorentz contraction, a theory of relativity without light – Ignatowski, Einstein’s composition of relative velocities – addition theorem for relative velocities, and space of relative velocities, Max Born and rigid body problem, Paul Ehrenfest’s paradox, relativity of simultaneity, Einstein’s clocks: Einstein’s 1905 Clock Paradox, Paul Langevin and the Twin Paradox*

*Poincaré and Einstein** –**The inertial mass-energy equivalence, Lorentz’s theory of the electron violated the principle of action and reaction, Henri Poincaré trying to mend this violation, in 1905 Einstein showed that a change in energy is associated with a change in inertial mass equal to the change in energy divided by c ^{2}. Einstein and Poincaré*

*– Method of clocks and their synchronization, Sur la dynamique de l’electron, Dynamics of the Electron, Einstein’s 1905 letter to Conrad Habicht, Poincaré’s 1905 letters to Lorentz, Poincaré’s spacetime mathematical theory of groups, As opposed to Einstein, before 1905 Poincaré stressed the importance of the method of clocks and their synchronization by light signals. Poincaré’s Lorentz group, Poincaré’s La Science et l’hypothèse – Science and Hypothesis*

**Innovation never comes from the established institutions**… – Eric Schmidt

מאמרי איינשטיין והיחסות שלי – גלי וינשטיין

דרכו של איינשטיין ליחסות הפרטית.

דרכו של איינשטיין ליחסות הכללית.

אני מתכננת לפרסם ספר ולכן המאמרים הם טיוטא ולא גרסא סופית.

“חידוש אף פעם לא מגיע ממוסדות מוכרים” – אריק שמידט.

*Einstein Archives – Jerusalem and Einstein Papers Project – Caltech*

Can you measure one way speed of light?

I think you can:

Let’s have 5 points A, B, C, D, E equally spaced (distance AB=BC =CD=DE. Let the point C be exactly in the middle. We can indirectly synchronize the clocks at B and D by sending the signals from B and D towards C and calculating back the time on B and D clocks so the signals from B and D would arrive at C at the same time. The clocks at B and D would be perfectly synchronized if the speed of light were the same in both directions. If not, there would be a difference. But the difference will be nullified if we send the light the same distance but in opposite direction.

So let’s send the signal from B to A and from D towards E at the same time as indicated on clocks B and D. Regardless of the unidirectional speed of light, the signals from B to A and from D to E will arrive at exactly the same time. So now we will have perfectly synchronized clocks at A and E. Measuring unidirectional speed of light now would be quite trivial.

Let us assume for example that the light needs 1s to travel from B to C and 3s from D to C. If we synchronize the clocks at B and D to be 0 at the moment the light was emitted (if the light signals arrive at C at the same time), the real time at the time tC as indicated on the clock at C will be as follow:

tB =tC+1s;

tD=tC+3s

Now if we send the signals from B to A and from D to E (at the same time as indicated on clocks at B and D) we will have the time on the clocks at A and E as follows:

tA=tB+3s=(tC+1s)+3s =tC+4s

tE=tD+1s = (tC+3s)+1s=tC+4s

So the clocks at A and E will be perfectly synchronized